Acute nephritic syndrome indicates an inflammatory process causing renal dysfunction over days to weeks that may or may not resolve.
In severe cases, it may cause more than 50% loss of nephron function over the course of just weeks or months.
It is characterized by the abrupt onset of:
• Hematuria with RBC casts or dysmorphic RBCs typically seen on urine microscopy.
• Proteinuria (usually a non-nephrotic range).
• Renal impairment: manifesting as oliguria, uremia, raised urea, and creatinine.
• Hypertension due to salt and water retention.
• Edema (usually the periorbital, leg, or sacral) due to salt and water retention.
• Hematuria ( micro or macroscopic)
Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (most
Henoch – schonlein purpura
Acute interstitial nephritis
• Complement levels
• ANA, ANCA, anti- GBM antibodies,
• Hepatitis C and B
• ASO titer
• C3 nephritic factor
• Dysmorphic red cells
• Red cell cast