Urinary bladder cancer is the second most common urologic cancer
More common in men
The mean age at diagnosis is 65 years.
Cigarette smoking and exposure to industrial dyes or solvents are risk factors.
The majority are transitional cell carcinomas.
• Hematuria: gross or microscopic, chronic or intermittent (85-90%).
• Urinary frequency, urgency.
Supraclavicular lymphadenopathy may be present with metastatic disease.
Lymphedema of the lower limb may be present if metastasis involves pelvic lymph nodes.
• Urine anlasysis /cytology : hematuria.
• FBE: – anaemia
• Urine cytology (80-90%) sensitivity.
. CT or MRI.
• Cystourethroscopy and biopsy
Urgent referral to a urologist