Renal cell carcinoma or hypernephroma arises from the proximal tubular epithelium
The average presentation is 55 years.
The cause is unknown
Cigarette smoking is a significant risk factor.
Renal cell carcinoma may be single, multiple or occasionally bilateral.
• Painless Hematuria (in 60%) is the most common presentation. It may be gross or microscopic.
• Flank pain
. Abdominal mass
• Triad of flank pain, painless hematuria and mass are present in 10-15% cases.
• Symptoms of metastatic disease such as cough, bone pain occur in 20-30% of cases.
Regional lymph node
• Ultrasound kidneys: show mass
• CT scan: required to assess the spread of tumour
• Chest x-ray: to assess the metastasis
• Bone scan: To assess the involvement of the bone.
• Removal of the affected kidney, along with adrenal gland and regional lymph nodes for localized non-metastatic tumour.
• Radiotherapy relieves pain due to metastasis.
• Five-year survival for tumours confined to the renal capsule 90-100% while 0-15% when lymph nodes are involved.